The production of edible fungi includes seed production and cultivation. There are many seed production equipment, from simple to complex, from coarse to fine, until the serialization and modernization of production, there is a development process; cultivation sites and mushroom houses, there is also a scale and regulation, need to be gradually invested and developed.
1, sterilization pot: there are two kinds of autoclave and autoclave. High pressure sterilization in 1.1 kg/cm 2 pressure sterilization for 30 minutes, can kill the oblique tube in the germs; 1.5 kg/cm 2 pressure sterilization in 1 hour, can kill the mushroom bottle cotton shell, wood chips and other culture materials in the germs. A portable medical sterilizer can be purchased, which can disinfect 50-60 test tubes or 10 mushroom bottles at a time. Atmospheric pressure sterilization kitchen: is made of brick cement, steamer put disinfectants, just boil water and keep 6-8 hours; after a cease-fire and then bake 1-2 hours; generally used as a kind of production disinfection.
At present, simple disinfection is to use steaming cage space disinfection, boil water and maintain 1-1.5 hours, cease fire cooling for 30 minutes, and then burn with fire and maintain 1-1.5 hours, disinfection can be completed. Microwave oven disinfection can be used in high-grade, open 10 minutes to disinfect can be completed, can also take the gap disinfection method inoculation equipment, automatic litter machine, edible fungi cultivation equipment.
2. Inoculation box: All bacteria transfer, isolation, expansion need to be carried out in the inoculation box; Require close, easy to operate. Generally, the simple inoculation box is 50 cm high, 47 cm wide and 82 cm long, and a piece of 30 x 32 cm glass is installed above the long side for observation. Two holes of 14 cm diameter are left below, and a cloth sleeve of 33 cm is installed at the hole, and the cuffs are fastened with elastic bands. There is a lamp in the box and a UV lamp installed. Open vaccination is now commonly used in large-scale production, which requires the purchase of an inoculator to inoculate in aseptic wind areas.
3. Thermostat: There are autocratic, there are also local, civil wooden boxes can be double-deck board, filled with wood chips insulation, the box filled with several specifications of light bulbs, for adjustment. Now, it is also useful for reforming the oven, and the general insulation effect is very good.
4. Culture room: dry, clean, ventilated, scattered light, sterilization of bacteria before entering the room, indoor should be equipped with a multi-layer culture rack, but also need a heating furnace, iron pipe out of the room, in order to exhaust. Fans should be provided in summer to cool down.
5. Seed production equipment
Balance: 500 grams of ordinary balance.
Measuring cup: the volume used for measuring water has 500, 1000 milliliters two kinds.
Test tube: generally use 20 * 200 mm specification.
Small funnel: strain bottle: strain bag: high temperature resistant polylactide film, alcohol lamp: inoculation knife, shovel, needle, tweezers, cotton, gauze, etc.
6. Disinfectant: formaldehyde: for space fumigation, 2 ml per cubic metre.
Potassium permanganate: 0.1% solution for surface disinfection of materials, or 5 grams of potassium permanganate plus 10 ml formaldehyde mixed fumigation disinfection.
New calming, bleaching powder, carbendazim and lime are all commonly used disinfectants.
7. Mushroom shed construction:
Mushroom shed construction, the basic requirements can shade, keep the shed three suns, seven shades, can only scatter light, not direct sunlight; secondly, ventilation, air outlet, the same can keep warm and humid, easy to operate and manage and harvest. The main forms are:
1), plastic small shed: arch garden plastic small shed generally 1.0-1.5 meters wide, should be based on the width of mushroom bed. Shed with fine bamboo poles or bamboo slices, spacing between 0.3-0.6 meters, covered with film, small shed has a good effect of temperature and moisture, is a simple outdoor mushroom shed.
2) Half-pit type greenhouse: Half-pit type greenhouse is suitable for local conditions, simple design because of poor, the main structure and characteristics are: (1) East-west or north-south direction can be, generally 50 meters long, 6 meters wide, the middle ribs with bamboo poles to support, with bamboo or bamboo arch arc. _Surrounding with earth palletizing wall, the ground inside the shed excavated about 30 cm, the wall around 50 cm high, from the middle of the ridge about 2 meters high. 3. Reinforce the framework with wire, cover the agricultural film, compacted around the soil, and cover the straw. The shed has low cost, heat preservation and moisture retention, uniform scattering light, good ventilation performance and convenient operation.
3) Solar greenhouse: This is a kind of greenhouse using sunlight as energy, its insulation performance is good, generally higher than the outside 10 degrees Celsius, and the temperature difference is not big, its back wall has earth wall or double-layer brick, the front is composed of pillars, beams, etc., covered with film and straw curtain, the back wall to leave vents.
In addition, there are steel-framed greenhouses, large cultivation area, rapid temperature increase, but the need to add a layer of shading net, winter also covered with straw curtain, in order to keep warm.